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Archive for November, 2009

Figure Of Speech

November 9th, 2009 No comments

Taxonomy

Figure Of Speech

classification : one of Aristotle’s original 13 fallacies

Ambiguities that could occur when different words in Greek or Latin had different cases or genders even though case or gender endings were the same.

Note: On Sophistical Refutations – Translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge

Categories: Logic

Aristotle’s 13 Fallacies

November 8th, 2009 No comments

Aristotle’s 13 Fallacies

Linguistic fallacies

(in dictione)

aristotle_full

De Sophisticis Elenchis:

One of his six works on logic contained within the Organon, (Instrument) the name given by Aristotle’s followers – the Peripatetics.

The works are:
Categories,
On Interpretation,
Prior Analytics,
Posterior Analytics,
Topics and

Sophistical Refutations.

Accent (Ambiguity or homonymy)
Amphiboly (or ambiguity)
Equivocation
Composition (Combination) and Division

(two sides of the same coin)

Figure of Speech

Non-linguistic fallacies

(extra dictionem)

Accident
Affirming the Consequent
In a Certain Respect and Simply
Ignorance of Refutation
Begging the Question
False Cause

source: Sophistical Refutations (Sophistici Elenchi)

On Sophistical Refutations – Translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge

  1. Ambiguity or homonymy)
Categories: Logic

Regression Fallacy

November 8th, 2009 No comments

Taxonomy – Where am I?

Regression Fallacy

classification : informal – non causa pro causa

With this, therefore because of this.
It ascribes cause where none exists. The flaw is failing to account for natural fluctuations.

Foundations

The Regression Fallacy is the result of a statistical phenomenon known as “regression to the mean”. The “mean” refers to the arithmetical average of some variable in a population, that is, the “mean” is what we usually mean by “average”. “Regression” refers to the value of the variable tending to move closer to the mean, away from extreme values. So, “regression to the mean” refers to the tendency of a variable characteristic in a population to move away from the extreme values towards the average value.

Examples

The frequency of accidents on a road fell after a speed camera was installed. Therefore, the speed camera has improved road safety.

Categories: Logic

Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc

November 8th, 2009 No comments

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Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc

classification : informal – non causa pro causa

With this, therefore because of this.
Committed when one jumps to a conclusion about causation based on a correlation between two events, or types of event, which occur simultaneously.

Foundations

The fallacy is to assert that because two events occur together, they must be causally related. It’s a fallacy because it ignores other factors that may be the cause(s) of the events.

Examples

Changing lanes in my car causes the rest of the traffic to speed up or slow down.

Other Names

Correlation does not imply causation
Post hoc ergo propter hoc (coincidental correlation)
Spurious relationship
Causality
Chain reaction
Domino effect

Categories: Logic

Question-Begging Analogy

November 7th, 2009 No comments

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Question-Begging Analogy

classification : informal – begging the question

An analogical argument begs the question when the strength of the analogy depends upon some controversial point at issue.

Foundations

Commonality of Begging the question and Weak analogy

Categories: Logic

Loaded Words

November 7th, 2009 No comments

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Loaded Words

classification : informal – begging the question

A loaded word carries a value judgment along with its descriptive element. The use of emotive words to influence the reader. This technique is frequently used in advertisements to persuade us to buy things. Bad words are used to make us buy products to rid ourselves of things that we have been persuaded are undesirable. Glad words are used to make us buy products to obtain what we have been persuaded is desirable.

Foundations

A word or phrase is “loaded” when it has a secondary, evaluative meaning in addition to its primary, descriptive meaning. When language is “loaded”, it is loaded with its evaluative meaning. A loaded word is like a loaded gun, and its evaluative meaning is the bullet.

Other Names

Loaded Language
Question-Begging Epithets
glad and bad words fallacy

Sub fallacies

Appeal to Nature

Categories: Logic

Illicit Observation

November 5th, 2009 No comments

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Illicit Observation

classification : informal – fallacies of ambiguity – equivocation

Committed when someone uses two terms as if they were negations of each other when they are not really.

Foundations

Examples

Other Names

Categories: Logic

Scope Fallacy

November 5th, 2009 No comments

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Scope Fallacy

classification : informal – fallacies of ambiguity – amphiboly

The scope fallacy is caused by improperly changing or misrepresenting the scope of a phrase.

Foundations

Ambiguity based on scope. Logical terms such as “not” have a scope, that is, a part of the proposition in which they occur that they affect logically.

Examples

Other Names

Sub fallacy of Amphiboly

Categories: Logic

Fallacy Of Division

November 5th, 2009 No comments

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Fallacy Of Division

classification : informal – fallacies of ambiguity

Fallacy of division occurs when one reasons logically that something true of a thing must also be true of all or some of its parts.

Foundations

The fallacy of division consists in assuming (wrongly) that a predicate that applies collectively must also apply distributively.

Examples

Starting with the Greek Philosophers, it was assumed that the atoms constituting a substance must themselves have the salient observed properties of that substance: so atoms of water would be wet, atoms of iron would be hard, atoms of wool would be soft, etc. This doctrine is called homeomeria, and it plainly depends on the fallacy of division.

Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large.

Other Names

Note: The converse of this fallacy is called fallacy of composition.

Note: On Sophistical Refutations – Translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge

Categories: Logic

Fallacy OF Composition

November 4th, 2009 No comments

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Fallacy Of Composition

classification : informal – fallacies of ambiguity

arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole (or even of every proper part).

Foundations

the fallacy of inferring from the fact that every part of a whole has a given property that the whole also has that property.

Caveat: It is important to note that drawing an inference about the characteristics of a class based on the characteristics of its individual members is not always fallacious. In some cases, sufficient justification can be provided to warrant the conclusion.

Examples

A counterfeiter who prints a million dollars will certainly benefit himself (if he doesn’t get caught) but if we all become counterfeiters and each print a million dollars, a quite different effect is rather obvious.

The bicycle is made entirely of low mass components, and is therefore very lightweight.

A car creates less pollution than a bus. Therefore, cars are less of a pollution problem than buses.

Other Names

Fallacy of Mediocrity
Sometimes confused with the fallacy of hasty generalization.

Note: The fallacy of composition is the converse of the fallacy of division.

Note: On Sophistical Refutations – Translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge

Categories: Logic